Jargon Buster

Jargon – “special words or expressions used by a profession or group that are difficult for others to understand.”

Here you can find the meanings of words you see across our site if you’re unsure of what they mean. If there are any other words which you think we’ve missed or could add then please drop us a message in the contact form and we’ll be sure to do so!



Chlorine is a chemical element which is widely used as a disinfectant by water treatment companies and is added to public water supplies to kill disease-causing pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, and protozoans.

Water Hardness

This is known as “how much limescale is in my water?”. When Calcium and Magnesium bond in water, they create limescale which is the white scum which sticks to heating appliances and surfaces.

Filter Types

Carbon Block

Filters in which the carbon is pressed or moulded into a tight block-like structure. Generally speaking, carbon block filters are more effective than GAC filters and can achieve a lower micron size. Carbon block filters are radial flow filters. (See below.)

Ceramic Cartridge

Ceramic is used to make very tight filters whose absolute filtration rating is too tight to allow the passage of bacteria or pathogens like cryptosporidium or giardia. Ceramic cartridges “purify” water by straining out pathogens. They do not remove chemicals (unless accompanied by an additive, like carbon, that does).

KDF Cartridge

Kinetic Degradation Fluxion Media. KDF (Kinetic Degradation Fluxion) process media are high-purity copper-zinc granules that reduce contaminants in water using an oxidation/reduction (redox) reaction. They are used in pre-treatment, primary treatment and wastewater treatment applications in order to extend system life and to reduce heavy metal contamination, chlorine and hydrogen sulfide. It is commonly paired with GAC to create a GAC/KDF cartridge.

Gravity Filter

A filter that works without water pressure. You pour water into an upper chamber and gravity pulls the water through the filters underneath. It then drops down into a lower vessel where your fresh water is stored.


Ultraviolet. Ultraviolet filtration is used to deactivate bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoans, and cysts. It is mutagenic to the contaminants previously mentioned, as it changes the genetic structure which renders them in-effective as they cannot perform vital cellular functions.


Heavy Metal Axe. HMA is usually used for short to describe an HMA system. This is usually applied to drinking water or aquatic use, where its main objective is to dechlorinate and remove heavy metals from the water.

Sediment Filter

A filter designed to strain out particles. Sediment filters normally do not remove chemical contaminants. The two main types are known as spun and wound. Spun filters are usually made of polypropylene and melt blown and is the more modern of the two types. Wound filters are usually cotton strings which are wound round a core. The tight wraps of cotton string catch sediment as the water travels through.



Chlorine, Taste and Odour. CTO is most commonly found describing carbon blocks. Chlorine, taste and odour are the three main things that carbon deals with and removes. Carbon has many other removal capabilities, but chlorine, taste and odour are the three that most people look to remove.


Granular Activated Carbon. Granules of activated carbon which have a large surface area, perfect for adsorbing chlorine and other contaminants.

KDF Process Media

KDF is a metallic (copper/zinc) filter medium used to remove free chlorine, lead, iron, and hydrogen sulfide. It is usually mixed with granular activated carbon. The treatment process is usually referred to as “redox,” which describes the interaction of dissimilar metals.

Coconut Carbon

Coconut carbon is the preferred carbon used in a drinking water application. Coconut carbon leaves water tasting fresher and cleaner. Because of coconut carbon’s wide surface area and its porosity, this form of filtration can remove chemicals that have proven difficult to expel using other forms of carbon. Coconut carbon can have up to 50% more micropores on its surface, making it 1.5x more effective than coal/charcoal carbon.


This is used to describe a media or agent which stops bacteria from multiplying and reproducing but doesn’t necessarily kill the bacteria. Bacteria usually needs to be removed via mechanical filtration or using chemicals.



Permeate water is the pure, product water you receive after the water has been filtered.


Pressure Release Valve. Pressure release valves are usually found on the top of housings units which have larger inlet and outlet ports. They are there so that you can release air from the housing before trying to unscrew it. This makes the housings easier to unscrew as there is not an airtight seal holding the housing to the head it is attached to.


Circular fitting in which you insert tubing into. Teeth surround the collet and grip onto the tubing which is inserted. Teeth from the collet can be released by depressing the collet so it is flush with the filter body.


Total Dissolved Solids. – “Total dissolved solids are a measure of the dissolved combined content of all inorganic and organic substances present in a liquid in molecular, ionized, or micro-granular suspended form.” – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Total_dissolved_solids


Parts Per Million. Similar to TDS, this is a measurement of water contents.

Absolute Rating

Absolute means absolute. An absolute 5-micron filter is one proven to remove virtually all particles of five-microns or larger.

Nominal Rating

Nominal means “more or less.” A nominal 5-micron filter is one that removes 85% or so of 5-micron particles.

Axial Flow Cartridge

A filter cartridge in which water enters on one end, flows the full length of the cartridge, and exits through the centre hole at the other end. Axial Flow cartridges usually contain granular or loose-fill filter media.

Radial Flow Cartridge

A cartridge in which the water flows from outside to inside and uses the entire surface area of the carbon. Carbon block cartridges are radial flow filters.

BAR/PSI Pressure

Bar = Metric Unit of Pressure. / PSI = Pounds per Square Inch.